Babylon: Babylon was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning ‘between two rivers’) in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates river in Iraq.
Founded: 1894 BC
Weather: 38°C, Wind NW at 21 km/h, 23% Humidity
Date dissolved: 539 BC
THE ORIGIN OF CIVILIZATION
Unlike the additional integrated civilizations of Egypt or Greece, Mesopotamia was a group of various cultures, whose solely real bonds were their script, their gods, and their behavior toward women. The social customs, laws, and even language of Akkad, as an example, can’t be assumed to be those of Babylon; it will appear, however, that the rights of females, the importance of education/literacy, and also the pantheon of their gods were so shared throughout the region (though the gods had completely different names in numerous regions and periods). As a results of this, Mesopotamia should be considered/understood as a vicinity that made multiple empires and civilizations instead of any single civilization. Even so, Mesopotamia is widely considered to be one of the origin of civilization by the Western world, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-days Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires.
BUILDINGS AND GOVERNMENT
The temple, at the middle of each city (often on a raised platform), symbolized the importance of the city’s patron deity who would also be worshiped by the communities reside there.
Mesopotamia made the worlds first cities largely built by bricks-dried in the sun.Unlike Egypt, Mesopotamia Scarcity of stones to be used for construction.
The land had plenty of trees for timber, so the people “turned to other natural resources that lay abundantly at hand: the muddy clay of its riverbanks and the rushes and reeds that grew in their marshes. With them, the Mesopotamian created the world’s first columns, arches, and roofed structures”.
Simple homes were constructed from bundles of reeds lashed together on the ground, and more complex homes were made of sun-dried clay brick
Unlike the priest-rulers who came before, the role of the king was established at some point after 3600 BCE , the king was directly dealing with the people and made his laws clear through his own will. Before the concept of a king, the priestly are believed to implement and govern the laws according to religious precepts.
Ruler claiming direct contact with the gods was common throughout Mesopotamian history, most notably in the Akkadian king Naram-Sin even proclaim himself a god incarnate.
The king was responsible for the well-being of his people and a good king,was recognized by the prosperity of the region he reigned over. Still, even very efficient rulers, such as Sargon of Akkad, had to deal with perpetual uprisings and revolts by factions, or whole regions. Mesopotamia was a vast region, with many different cultures and ethnicity, a single ruler attempting to implement or enforce the laws of a central government would invariably be met with resistance from some quarter.
The legacy of Mesopotamia endures today through many of the most basic aspects of modern life such as the sixty-second minute and the sixty-minute hour.
Urbanization, the wheel, writing, astronomy, mathematics, wind power, irrigation, agricultural developments, animal husbandry, and the narratives which would eventually be re-written as the Hebrew Scriptures and form the Christian Old Testament all came from the land of Mesopotamia.
Both, Men & women were working because ancient Mesopotamia was basically an agrarian society, the main occupations were growing crops and raising livestock” (Bertman, 274). Other occupations included those of the scribe, the healer, artisan, weaver, potter, shoemaker, fisherman, teacher, and priest or priestess.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon Facts
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are deemed to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon. Although there is no proof that they actually existed, they are thought to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is called the Hanging Gardens because the gardens were built high on multi-level stone terraces above the ground. The plants weren’t rooted in the earth like a ordinary garden. If it existed it would likely to be the most beautiful man-made gardens ever created.
Key Facts About the Gardens
1. Several ancient Roman and Greek writers wrote about the gardens. They wrote about why they were built, how they were built, and the size of the gardens. They even described how the gardens were watered. They didn’t all agree on why they were built or who they were built for.
2. The most popular theory is that the gardens were built by king Nebuchadnezzar II to make his wife happy. She was homesick for the plants and gardens of her homeland.
3. King Nebuchadnezzar II ruled Babylon from 605BC, for a period of 43 years. It was during this time that he is said to have had the Hanging Gardens built.
4. If the gardens actually existed, it would have taken 8,200 gallons of water each day to keep the plants watered.
The gardens were thought to be about 75 feet high. The water would have had to have been carried up or transported to the top of the gardens by a primitive water irrigation system.
5. There are many clay tablets that exist from the time period when the Hanging Gardens would have existed. None of these ancient tablets mention the Hanging Gardens.
6. Some historians and archaeologists believe that the gardens did exist and were destroyed by war and erosion. Some believe it was earthquakes that eventually devastated and destroyed the gardens.
In the ‘Hanging Gardens’, the plants did not actually hang. They grew from many different levels of terraces (similar to balconies).
The word ‘hanging’ comes from the Latin word ‘pensilis’ or the translation of the Greek word ‘kremastos’. It actually means overhanging instead of just hanging.
7. A Greek historian named Diordorus Siculus described the gardens as being 400 feet wide by 400 feet long. He also said that the walls were more than 80 feet high.
8. Between 1899 and 1917 a German archaeologist Robert Koldewey may have unearthed the Hanging Gardens. What he unearthed resembled what Diordorus Siculus had described. In the bottom of the ‘hanging gardens’ there were three strange holes in the floor that would have worked well for a chain pump irrigation system. This would have made it possible to irrigate the plants.
9. Recent excavations have found traces of aqueducts near Nineveh, which would have supported such a garden. Nineveh is 300 miles away from Babylon.